Traditional medicine policy and regulation in nigeria. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices. Illness is regarded as having both natural and supernatural causes and. Traditional african medicine and its role in healing in a.
Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in africa, john wiled and sons limited, chichester. Traditional medicine also known as indigenous or folk medicine comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. A study of traditional healers in nigeria found that 60% of the population was at risk because of the contamination spread by tradition healers. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in lagos, nigeria. Tradi tional medicine, yoruba, nigeria, medicinal plants. The results emphasized that nigeria has a long history and culture of tm, conducive climate for the growing of herbs and other materials related to it. The aim of the study is to examine the perception and patronage of traditional medicine in kaduna state. Traditional, orthodox, medicine, health care, nigeria.
Islam reached nigeria through the borno empire between 1068 ad and hausa states around 85 ad during the 11th century, while. Traditional medicine who regional office for africa. Traditional medicine and the future of medicinal plants in. Pdf traditional medicine practices among the yoruba. The present study represents an attempt to document information on the traditional medicinal plants that used in nigeria. Perhaps, the biggest problems in nigeria with herbal medicine are a lack of. The traditional medical practices of the yoruba in nigeria, however, offer fresh. African cultural practices and health implications for. Since tam has been with the rural dwellers for generations and also for the fact that orthodox medicine is often in short supply, expensive and often times fake, the peoples approach in terms of illhealth is first turned towards patronizing the easily accessible traditional. The overarching theme of the research is to investigate the traditional herbal medicine and its practices among the indigenous people of ghana.
The hippocratic oath was written in ancient greece in the 5th century bce, and is a direct inspiration for. Data from the study was derived from the administration of a. Nigerian theatre, variety of folk opera of the yoruba people of southwestern nigeria that emerged in the early 1940s. Pdf often times, people ask questions about the origin and. The contributions of african traditional medicine to nigerias health. An examination of the perception and patronage of traditional. Africa is considered to be the cradle of mankind with a rich biological and cultural diversity marked by regional differences in healing practices 2, 6.
African traditional medicine in its varied forms is. Over threequarter of the worlds population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicine is practiced in line with the sociocultural background of the people. A compiled check list of these plants including their latin names. Table 1 shows some selected nigerian medicinal plants and their uses. The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and.
May 10, 2018 herbal medicine is an important and significant part of alternative medicine. It is misunderstood, sometimes to the point of causing fear. Overview on medicinal plants and traditional medicine. Ayurvedic and traditional chinese medicine in which herbal therapies were used. Traditional medicine practices among the yoruba people of nigeria. As once noted some years ago tella, 1986, traditional medicine is as old as the hills in nigeria. The integration of traditional and complementary medicine. Traditionalherbal medicine, traditional medical practitioners, medicinal plants, conservation, nigeria. African traditional medicines and indigenous knowledge systems. History and benefits of herbal medicine the guardian. The history of nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers nigerians living in the area as early as 1100 bc. Early medical traditions include those of babylon, china, egypt and india.
The devel opment of traditional medicine in nigeria has led to various categories of healers, the various healing methods, strategies and medicines or remedies now known. Medicinal plants used in antenatal and perinatal care among. The oldest known list of medicinal herbs is shen nungs pen tsao or shennong ben cao jing c. This gives credence to the fact that people patronise traditional medicine practitioners tmps.
If one wants to discuss traditional medicine, one can do it without making comparisons to the arabs, chinese, europeans, etc. Medicinal plants used in antenatal and perinatal care. The training systems of africans such as the traditional schools did exist, but most. This paper attempts to unravel the historical development of yoruba traditional medicine. It is a part and parcel of alternative treatment methods. Introduction mans life and survival would be impossible without symbiosis with, and extensive use of plants and plant products. History and benefits of herbal medicine nigeria and world news. Akinwumi department of botany, university of benin, benin city nigeria accepted october 20, 1986 summary one hundred informants including full timepart time herbalists, old ladies, family heads and. Traditional medicine and the future of medicinal plants in nigeria. The world health organization who defines traditional medicine as the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to. African traditional medicines and indigenous knowledge. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in lagos, nigeria.
Herbal manual sw school of botanical medicine home. Subsaharan countries have found ways to unite modern medicine with traditional medicine due to the urgency of the hivaids epidemic. It is also recognised by the who that herbal medicines are the most popular form of traditional medicine, and are highly lucrative in the international medicine market. Apr 09, 2019 herbalism, divination, and spiritualism often combine in traditional african medicine, perhaps the oldest and most varied therapeutic system in the world. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and in traditional societies preparation for the hunt. Traditional and orthodox medical systems in nigeria american. The ancient chinese, indians, egyptians, babylonians, and native americans were all herbalists. African traditional medicine is the oldest, and perhaps the most assorted, of all therapeutic systems. Therefore, this study is designed to assess the policy and regulation guiding herbal medicine in nigeria as this information may form a safety index of herbal medicine use in nigeria.
Oral literature encompasses fables, folktales, legends myths and proverbs. Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. The boys also engaged in such other training activities as archery, tree climbing and wrestling. In addition to herbal medicine, massage, therapeutic dieting, fasting, hydrotherapy, and radiant healing therapy are often among the other components of traditional medicine. In the early 20th century, most of the yoruba city states and communities were controlled by obas. Researchers have found that people in different parts of the world tend to use the same or similar plants for the the recently, the world health. L w l abstract often times, people ask questions about the origin and development of traditional medicine among the yoruba people. Use of traditional herbal medicines in developed countries 2. The federal government of nigeria has established the nigeria natural medicine development agency nnmda to study, collate, document, develop, preserve and promote nigerian traditional medicine products and practices and to also fasttrack the integration of the tm into the mainstream of modern health care system in line with happenings in. It combined a brilliant sense of mime, colourful costumes, and traditional drumming, music, and folklore. Traditional medicine is contrasted with scientific medicine. Traditional medicine might also be considered as a solid amalgamation of dynamic medical knownhow and ancestral experience.
African cultural practices and health implications for nigeria rural development ojua takim asu phd. Sushruta, from india, introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis and prognosis. The study investigates the relevance of herbal medicine in contemporary health care provision in ghana. Herbal medicine practice in nigeria is currently attracting serious attention from the scientific. This paper presents findings on the perception and patronage of traditional medicine in kaduna state nigeria. Peter department of philosophy, university of benin, benin city, nigeria introduction african traditional medicine has an important place in.
Jul 03, 2011 the federal government of nigeria has established the nigeria natural medicine development agency nnmda to study, collate, document, develop, preserve and promote nigerian traditional medicine products and practices and to also fasttrack the integration of the tm into the mainstream of modern health care system in line with happenings in. One major difference between conventional, western medicine and traditional african medicine, is the way of viewing illnesses and their treatments. In some asian and african countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Pdf traditional medicine practices among the yoruba people of. As part of efforts to improve, harmonise and standardise traditional medicine practice in africa, the african regional standard organisation arso, an intergovernmental body formed by the african. Medicinal plants for forest conservation and healthcare, fao, rome, italy. Traditional medicine is often termed alternative or complementary. The african continent experienced its own form of training and learning before it was colonized and even before the arrival of the missionaries. Journal of ethmpharnwcology, 18 1986 257266 257 eisevier scientific publishers ireland ltd. The traditional leadership of yoruba land consists of an oba, who is the monarch, as well as chiefs or oloyes, which act as advisers and coadministrators of the kingdom.
Industrial utilisation of medicinal plants in developing countries, nonwood forest products ii. This gives credence to the fact that people patronise traditional medicine practitioners tmps for their primary health needs more. The study of traditional medicine is a much neglected aspect of global health. This paper has tried to trace the historical background of traditional medicine in nigeria, its contributions. In africa, up to 80% of the population uses traditional medicine for primary health care 2.
Pdf traditional medicine practices among the yoruba people. By definition, traditional use of herbal medicines implies substantial. A towering figure in the history of medicine was the physician hippocrates of kos c. Traditional medicine refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain wellbeing fokunang et al. The traditional healer provides health care services based on culture, religious background, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that are prevalent in his community. Traditional african medicine is a traditional medicine discipline involving indigenous herbalism and african spirituality, typically involving diviners, midwives, and herbalists.
Despite the effectiveness of the traditional medicine some peoplestill hold the view that to be civilized is to avoid the etm and cleave to the use of orthodox medicine. Akinwumi department of botany, university of benin, benin city nigeria accepted october 20, 1986 summary one hundred informants including full timepart time herbalists, old ladies, family heads and village heads. Traditional medicine tm is defined as the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures that are used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose, improve or treat physical and mental illnesses 1. Traditional plant uses can be inventoried for present day use. Nov 25, 2011 over threequarter of the worlds population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. This holistic health care system has many practitioners and followers and despite its decline for a period of time, traditional african medicine has resurged across the continent in recent years.
A brief history of herbalism the use of plants for medicinal purposes. Thus, traditional medicine policy and regulation have been made an integral part of the who proposed critical determinants of herbal medicine safety. Practitioners of traditional african medicine claim to be able to cure various and diverse conditions such as cancers, psychiatric disorders, high blood pressure, cholera, most venereal diseases, epilepsy, asthma. Brief history of yoruba people, culture, religion and. Among the igbos of southeast nigeria, folk medicine as a cultural heritage remains one of the bedrock of prevailing. The second is to find out the level of preference of folk medicine in igbo society, and thirdly to collate some medical folklores of the igbo society. According to statistics, they make up as much as 35% of the total population of nigeria. Although occupations varied accord ing to the geographical areas in nigeria, the major ones were farming, trading, craft work, fishing, cat tle rearing, wine tapping, traditional medicine and blacksmithing. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Because traditional healers are so wellrespected and trusted by their communities, many practitioners and followers of westernized medicine believe the healers can play an important role in.
Numerous ancient african civilizations settled in the region that is today nigeria, such as the kingdom of nri, the benin empire, and the oyo empire. Herbal medicines in african traditional medicine intechopen. The history, the current prevalence and the approach to a patient jewel llamas april 2017 introduction female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation fgm or female genital cutting fgc, is practiced in many countries spanning. Herbal medicine involves the use of different parts of the. Traditional medicine refers to the knowledge, skills and practises based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness. Latin america use traditional medicine tm to meet some of their primary health care needs. The traditional healers promote traditional african medicine, a form of holistic health that combines spiritual beliefs and herbalism to treat patients. Up until the 20th century western medicine was not much better than a placebo and often medical procedures did more harm than good.
The people see the causes of illness from viruses, bacteria and parasites as secondary causes. Islam reached nigeria through the borno empire between 1068 ad and hausa states. Traditional medicine practices among the yoruba eo plf n ig ra. Herbal manual the medicinal, toilet, culinary and other uses of of the most commonly used herbs by harold ward l.
Yorubas are one of the most popular ethnic groups in nigeria. Nigeria, the ratio of traditional health practitioners to the population was 1. These plants exhibit a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities such as anti cancer, antiinflammatory, diuretic, laxative, antispasmodic, antihypertensive. Nov 25, 2011 it is also recognised by the who that herbal medicines are the most popular form of traditional medicine, and are highly lucrative in the international medicine market.
Traditional medicine has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world and its use is rapidly spreading in the industrialized countries. Unlike its western counterpart, traditional african medicine is said to take a holistic approach, which is based on the premise of interconnectedness, and often includes indigenous herbalism in its treatment. The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. When adopted outside its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often considered a form of alternative medicine. The use of music in healing and healing rites in african traditional societies is as old as the origin of african continent. Trends and challenges of traditional medicine in africa. They also cover large portions of kwara state, and even edo state. African traditional medicine is a form of holistic health care system organized into three levels of specialty, namely divination, spiritualism, and herbalism. This paper attempted a historical origin of this art, provides a theoretical basis for music therapy in africa and concludes by specifically highlighting areas where the use of music therapy has yielded fruitful results in nigeria. Nigeria is richly endowed with indigenous plants, which are used in herbal medicine to cure diseases and heal injuries.450 1186 739 1110 1154 1186 315 754 918 720 1543 169 360 1246 149 989 974 1599 1398 207 644 1187 533 1004 1028 1040 495 786 1470 12 837 913 602 245 494 126 849